Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan, is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. It is a unitary, constitutional, presidential republic, comprising twelve provinces, one autonomous republic and a capital. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan towards the north; Tajikistan towards the southeast; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan towards the southwest.
Once part of the Turkic Khaganate and then Timurid Empires, the location that today includes the Republic of Uzbekistan was conquered in early 16th century by Eastern Turkic-speaking nomads. The region was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire throughout the 1800s, and in 1924 what is now Uzbekistan was a bordered constituent republic of the Soviet Union, referred to as Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). Following a breakup of the Ussr, it declared independence because the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1991 (officially celebrated the following day).
Uzbekistan is officially a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. The nation's official language is Uzbek, a Turkic language designed in the Latin alphabet and spoken natively by approximately 85% of people; however, Russian remains in widespread use. Uzbeks constitute 81% of people, accompanied by Russians (5.4%), Tajiks (4.0%), Kazakhs (3.0%), and others (6.5%). Most Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. Uzbekistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), UN, and also the SCO. While officially a democratic republic, non-governmental human rights organizations define Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".
Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production, including cotton, gold, uranium, and gas. Regardless of the declared purpose of transition to some market economy, its government continues to maintain economic controls which imports in favour of domestic "import substitution".